Cheapest Tilapia And Koi Feeds...produce Your Azolla Plant Now!!!
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cell no. 0915-4517963/ 0946-2062698
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PICKUP PRICE: P300.00 FOR 1 cup AZOLLA
PICK UP PRICE: P1,000.00 FOR 1 KILO DUCKWEED
PLUS ADDITIONAL SHIPMENT COST VIA LBC=P100.00 PER CUP
AZOLLA FERN PLANT PRODUCTION AT BRGY. MASINAO, STA.MARIA, LAGUNA @ CADAYONA FARM PRODUCTS
DISTRIBUTION SATELLITE OF AZOLLA FERN PLANT @ 1202 GEN.LUNA ST. ERMITA, MANILA
Azolla is a great free floating fern which grows very well in the right conditions and can be put to many uses. As cattle feed it increases milk production in cows, as chicken feed it increases weight of chicken and eggs as proven by the SOLRAYA ENTERPRISES,(free range chicken production), as a biofertilizer it provides nitrogen supplement to plants and it can also be eaten by human beings.What is Azolla??
A CHEAP NATURAL FEED IN TILAPIA, can now replace at most half of the commercial feeds for tilapia production, according to results of a study conducted by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) in Cagayan province.
In an experiment conducted at the BFAR experimental farm in Iguig, Cagayan, regional researchers led by Cagayan Valley Regional Director Dr. Jovita Ayson found that small floating plants in fishponds, called azolla or duckweeds, can effectively substitute for half of the commercial feeds for tilapia production. Thus, the use of this floating plant can greatly reduce the cost of feeds and give tilapia raisers a savings of 50% on feed cost.
All that fishpond operators need is to allocate a portion of their ponds for azolla production.
Azolla contains 40%-45% protein, according to Dr. Ayson. Fresh azolla can replace half of the commercial feeds. Since it is used in its fresh state, there is no added cost of production, except for the cost of collection.
Kelangan magpagawa ka ng enclosed na concrete na lagayan ng azolla (kahit 2 or 3 patong na concrete blocks ang taas, may continous running fresh water (inflow/outflow) at may sunlight ang lugar. Dapat ang outflow ng tubig ay mapakinabangan ng mga tanim na halaman para walang nasasayang na tubig.
Kakapal ng kakapal ang original na azolla na ilalagay mo sa ponds. Pag sobra sobra na ang azolla mo ay saka ka lang magplano ipakain ang iba sa mga tilapia. Remember also na gustong gusto din ng mga manok at baboy ang azolla.
WHAT IS DUCKWEED???
click me here!!!! for information on Duckweed!! http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/documents/DW/Dw2.htmDuckweed (Lemna minor) is a perennial water cover that goldfish and koi find irresistible. This quick spreading plant will double in size on a daily basis, if given proper growing conditions. Remember to keep a sufficient amount in a sunny, fish-free area to ensure a constant supply. A sufficient amount is several cups of the plant. Duckweed is hardy in zones 6 to 10.
Duckweed as a source of nutrients for domestic animals
Although farmers, particularly in South East Asia and probably elsewhere had developed the use of duckweeds as a source of nutrients for livestock, the actual controlled experimentation that has been typically used to develop such commercial crops as soyabeans or maize for livestock feed has not been undertaken. There are, however, a number of reports in the literature on the use of duckweeds as feed supplements for fish and livestock. These report research with domestic animals in which normal feed protein sources have been replaced by duckweed meal on an isonitrogenous bases in complete diets based on compounded concentrate diets.
Duckweeds are highly variable in their composition. They grow slowly on low nutrient waters and are high in fibre, ash and carbohydrates but contain low crude protein. In contrast when grown on waters high in ammonia and minerals they grow rapidly and have a high protein content associated with a high ash and are often lower in fibre. Because duckweeds respond quickly to the availability of nutrients they often have highly variable levels of some nutrients which makes it difficult to prescribe the amounts needed for livestock and fish over a period of, say, one year. Careful interpretation of some studies reported is required when the quality of duckweed given in diets to livestock is not consistent throughout the study. In terms of domestic animal/fish nutrition, duckweeds may be used in many ways. These include:
- As a total feed
- As a supplemental source of:
- phosphorous and other major minerals
- trace minerals
- colouring pigment for egg yolk/flesh of chickens
- vitamin A and the B group
- fibre in low fibre diets for pigs and poultry
Duckweeds have been largely researched as a total feed for fish, including carp and tilapia production, as a protein supplement for pigs and poultry (including ducks) and as fermentable N and mineral supplement for ruminants.
The research on duckweeds as a feed are summarised below. The uncertainty of the conclusions and the difficulty in making clear recommendations largely pertains to the fact the quality of the duckweed used by various researchers (i.e. its nutrient densities) were variable. However, as a resource that can be harvested for labour costs alone in natural conditions, it obviously represents a valuable asset to the resource poor farmer. In many countries it could have a low cost where it is grown on sewage and it has to be disposed of from the works at a subsidised price.
It appears to be a resource that is most conveniently used by the small holder farmer, particularly in an integrated farming system. Unfortunately much of the research has attempted to demonstrate the value of duckweed as a protein source in diets that are most commonly used in industrial production systems. This is particularly true of the research with poultry and yet its major application probably lies in the more difficult situation of increasing animal production on small farms.
FARMING SYSTEMS FOR DUCKWEEDS
A number of aquatic plants including duckweeds have great potential for development for various purposes.
Essentially aquatic plants may or will be grown in developing countries where:
- there is an unused area of standing water available that is either free or is relatively inexpensive to purchase, rent or lease.
- fresh water fish/crustacean production is impractical, not practiced or there are other constraints to their production, such as pollution.
- there is a need to clean water of chemicals before reuse or release into the aquatic ecosystem of rivers/deltas or seas.
- there is a market for the product or the product can be integrated into a system of production enhancing the economic viability of the farm either being used as mulch, fertiliser, feed/food and perhaps even fuel.
- there is a levy on industries in disposing of water contaminated with chemicals.
- legislation is enacted in order to clean up vast areas of ponds or wet lands that have become unusable for, in particular, fish production.
- duckweed mats on standing water reduce the health hazards from clean or polluted water bodies
Candidates for use in any of these applications include duckweeds, Azolla, Pistia, Ecihhornia and a few lessor known aquatic plants.
There are major advantages for floating aquatic plants as the water depth is not critical and harvesting does not necessarily disturb the underlying ecosystem in the mud. Ease of harvest is important and Azolla and duckweed are readily harvested, but have the disadvantage of having to be protected from wind and water currents to encourage total coverage of lagoons and hence maximum yields. There is some evidence for a symbiotic association of Lemna and N fixing bacteria, but on low N waters Lemna growth is slow and the product is low in protein, on high phosphorus water low in N, Azolla with its association with N fixing bacteria is more appropriately grown. However, Azolla has some greater problems associated with its continuous growth as compared to Lemna particularly from insect damage. Addition of N fertiliser in aquatic media mostly removes the major advantage of Azolla, that is, its ability to grow on low N water.
Poultry - meat production
Recent studies have demonstrated that on conventional diets for young broiler chickens, replacing a protein source with Lemna meal retarded growth as levels increased (Haustein et al., 1992b, 1994) whereas layers produced efficiently (Haustein et al., 1990) and older broiler birds had excellent growth characteristics when fed relatively high levels of Lemna meal. This is of significance to the factory production systems for poultry where margins per bird are often small and small decreases in profitability per bird are important. The reduction in growth of young birds has little significance where Lemna meal would be used in a small farmer systems, particularly where birds balance their own diet by scavenging from cropping areas.
Duckweed is perhaps named because ducks were observed to use it in the wild. The more omnivorous duck appears to utilise it highly effectively under field conditions. On sewage farms in the New England territory of Australia wild ducks so vigorously consumed duckweeds that they initially prevented the high growth rates needed to lower water nutrients to desired levels. In Vietnam duckweed produced on nutrients from animal and human waste is given fresh with cassava waste (Photos 8-12) to ducks. Duckweed provides both energy and protein and also a complement of essential minerals needed to grow ducks to a body composition and a weight for age that was needed by the excellent restaurant trade.
Unlike monogastric nutrition where feed analysis are indicative of nutrient availability to the animal, ruminants through their fermentative digestive system modify virtually all the protein and carbohydrate in the feed they consume. The nutrients become available as volatile fatty acids (which are the major energy source), and amino acids (produced by enzymatic digestion of microbial cells that have grown and been washed from the rumen in liquor). Forage proteins are in general, degraded to ammonia in the rumen and the animal depends on microbial protein for its essential amino acid supply. The efficiency of production is primarily dependent on the establishment of an efficient microbial ecosystem in the rumen. The potential use of duckweed in ruminants diets is two fold:
- as a mineral source to correct deficiencies of minerals in the diet for both rumen microbes and the animal
- an ammonia source for the rumen microbes.
These two roles are largely confined to the rumen since an efficient microbial digestive system is dependent on a full complement of essential minerals and a high level of ammonia in the fluid. Deficiency of minerals and/or ammonia (which may be produced from supplemental non-protein-nitrogen sources or by the degradation of dietary protein) results in a lowered microbial growth in the rumen with inefficient growth of the microbial milieu. The consequences of low microbial growth is a reduced protein relative to energy in the nutrients absorbed (see Preston & Leng 1986 for review) and often lowered digestibility of forage and reduced feed intake.
Ruminants under feeding systems found in most areas of the world are often deficient in an array of nutrients required by the microbial fermentative digestive system. This is the case, particularly when consuming mature dry forages or crop residues (straws/stubbles) and at times agro-industrial byproducts (e.g. sugar cane tops, molasses and fruit residues). Duckweed with its high mineral and protein content can provide an array of nutrients for the rumen microbes to function efficiently on such diets. These food resources are the basis of diets for ruminants in large areas of the world, particularly in countries that are considered to be developing. In this way a quantity of duckweed could replace the use of multi-nutritional supplements based on such things as molasses urea block licks (see Leng 1984).
Duckweed also has some potential as a dietary protein source that may be modified or may actually provide bypass protein that is required by productive animals to meet their extra requirements for essential amino acids (see Preston & Leng, 1986).
There are some preliminary research results where duckweed has been fed as a supplement to ruminants, but clearly there is a need for major research effort in this area to develop a clear definition of the strategic importance of duckweed as a N source, as a bypass protein source, as a source of essential minerals including S, P, Na, K, Mg and trace minerals.
A duckweed, corn silage diet (1:2) produced higher growth rates in Holstein heifers than a diet based on corn silage, concentrate and grass (Rusoff et al., 1978, 1980). These studies and preliminary studies at the University of New England indicate the high potential of duckweed as a supplement.
More recently Huque et al. (1996) have commenced work to examine duckweed as a source of N and minerals for ruminant animals in Bangladesh. In a study of the kinetics of the utilisation of duckweed dry matter and protein they used nylon bag incubation techniques to study the breakdown of duckweeds in the rumen of cattle. The duckweeds used in these studies were around 30% crude protein. Overall the studies illustrated that, in cattle fed forage and concentrate, the potential degradation of duckweed dry matter in the rumen was 85% (Spirodela), 72% (Lemna) and 93% (Wolfia). The protein of duckweed were highly soluble in the rumen at 24% (Spirodela), 42% (Lemna) and 18% (Wolfia) and overall 80, 87 and 94% respectively of the protein was apparently degraded in the rumen. At high feed intakes there was apparently some potential for a small amount of the protein from duckweeds to escape degradation in the rumen and provide essential amino acids directly to the animal.
It seems probable that dried duckweed will provide a readily fermentable protein source together with a rich mineral level needed for creating an efficient rumen for animals fed low protein forages such as straw. The extent that duckweed can correct mineral deficiencies in diets for ruminants will depend on the composition of the duckweed which in turn depends on the level of minerals in the water body growing the duckweed.
The major role of duckweed in ruminant diets is likely to be as a major source of minerals and ammonia-N for the rumen and future research should examine its strategic use to stimulate ruminant production on high mature forage diets.
In developing countries, ruminants often subsist on byproducts of agro-industries and crop residues that are often (mostly) low in minerals and a source of ammonia in the rumen. In many situations duckweeds would be a valuable resource to ensure that ruminants utilise these feeds effectively by providing a soluble N source (e.g. ammonia) needed by the cellulolytic organisms for protein synthesis and also a source of particularly P and S which are essential for microbial growth and therefore the animal (Preston & Leng, 1986).
From the research of Huque et al. (1996) it appears that duckweed would require treatment to protect its protein to produce a meal that will deliver protein to the intestines and produce a high protein to energy ratio in the nutrients absorbed that will further advance ruminant productivity from crop residues. The potential responses of cattle to both fermentable N (i.e. N sources that give rise of ammonia in the rumen such as urea or leaf proteins) and to bypass protein have been discussed in many publications. Duckweed might be able in the future through research to replace multi-nutrient blocks used in these feeding trials (Sansoucy, 1995)
Treatment method for duckweed, which provide say half the protein as protected and half soluble to give bypass protein to the animal and ammonia for the rumen microbial digestive system together with the minerals in duckweed could remarkably enhance meat and milk production by ruminants given crop residues that contain major nutrient deficiencies.
Smith and Leng (1993) incubated duckweed meal in rumen fluid from sheep where it was rapidly fermented with the production of ammonia. Unfortunately treatment by heat, formaldehyde or xylose - three methods that have been successful in turning soyabean meal into bypass protein had no effect on the rate of release of ammonia. However, these chemicals were only sprayed on the meal and it is probable that some heat is necessary to effect protection of the protein. Duckweed protein, like terrestrial plant leaf protein is not easily protected from rumen degradation by any presently known methodology.
It is possible that when the protein is at high concentrations in duckweed that some of it is as peptide, amino acid or non protein-nitrogen. On the other hand it could be that leaf proteins have failed to come into contact with the dilute solutions of protecting agents that are used to protect the finely prepared extracted seed meals such as soyabean (formaldehyde or xylose) and future research should examine the application of heat after spraying to complete the reactions.
Most intensive fish farms culture fish that have very high value on national or world markets. In these intensive systems the fish require feed with extremely high protein levels and a well balanced array of essential amino acids. This is quite often provided by high cost fish meals. These farming systems have achieved a high level of production but with high cost inputs (including feed, fresh water, and the prevention of pollution) which makes them expensive. In the context of this book, duckweeds are not easily accommodated into such high technology systems, even though with great care a dry meal with excess of 45% crude protein may be produced and it may be possible to blend this with fish meal as a major protein source for intensive fish farming.
Herbivorous fish are cultured in many parts of the world. They include many varieties of carp and tilapia which provide a protein source of high biological value for humans. These fish are often regarded as inferior in taste but they are of great benefit in the diets of poor people who are often financially confined to largely vegetarian diets. These diets may at times be deficient in essential amino acids, depending on the source and variety of vegetables available. In the same way as milk is a source of potentially deficient essential amino acids in resource poor people, particularly those who are vegetarians, fish can play the same role.
Fresh duckweed (and also the dried meal) is suited to intensive production of herbivorous fish (Gaiger et al., 1984) and duckweed is converted efficiently to liveweight gain by carp and tilapia (Hepher & Pruginin, 1979; Robinette et al., 1980; van Dyke & Sutton, 1977, Hassan & Edwards 1992, Skillicorn et al., 1993).
A major investment in duckweed aquaculture research in Bangladesh (see later) has potentially important repercussions particularly for the host countries where the research has been carried out. This research has been the single most important research in this area and has focussed world attention on duckweed both as a feed for freshwater fish and as a water cleanser (Skillicorn et al., 1993) and the book by these authors is mandatory reading for anyone becoming interested in this area.
The PRISM group initiated the pilot project in Bangladesh to develop farming systems for duckweed and to test its values as a fish feed in polycarp production.
The outcomes of this project points the way for the efficient use of duckweed in many situations. It has important lessons for the development of small farmer systems where integration of crop and animal production benefits from the use of duckweed's ability to scavenge and retain major mineral nutrients within the system.
Carp species are by far the most commonly cultivated freshwater fish in Asia. They grow under diverse conditions, tolerating reduced water quality in even stagnant water ways. Their greatest attribute is the ease with which they can be managed in ponds and the huge production potential under good environmental and nutritional conditions.
Different carp species tend to occupy different ecological niches and therefore a number of species that are highly selective in their dietary preferences can be places in the same pond and will occupy different feeding zones. The development of polycarp culture depends on maximally using the feed biomass in a pond system by having top feeders, middle feeders and bottom feeding fish. These include an herbivorous species capable of feeding on surface plants or plants accessible on the sides of the pond or fed to them freshly harvested from another site as would be the case with duckweed; Two middle feeders which feed on either zooplankton and/or phytoplankton that grow on the detritus produced by the top feeders and a bottom feeding species which use the faecal materials produced by the middle and upper feeding fish.
Carp polyculture depends on most of the fish being produced on the zooplankton and phytoplankton (up to 85%). Providing extra feed for the surface feeders may increase carp production and it was a major reason for establishing the PRISM projects at Mirazapur as the surface feeders were restricted to very low stocking rates because of the small availability of plant biomass from the pond edges.
The polycarp systems depend on balancing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and maintaining oxygen levels in the water. Aeration and fertiliser use rates are critical in this way. BOD is created by:
- high densities of phytoplankton that respire at night
- the high oxygen demand from the heavy stocking rate of fish
- microbial aerobic degradation of organic matter.
In a traditional manure fed water body for polyculture of carp the main consideration is at what rate should the manures be fed to the water body? Stocking rate then is determined by the resultant demand for oxygen.
The special aspect of carp production from duckweed is that it can be set up using a single species of surface feeding carp or it can be used in polyculture to increase the total stocking rates. By providing fresh duckweed daily which does not decompose and can be fed ad lib, the top feeding carp densities might be increased together with an increase in bottom feeders increasing stocking density overall.
As the biochemical oxygen demand is turned down by reduced aerobic degradation of plant materials (that is replacing dead plant materials with live duckweed), the fish levels can increase to an extent that their respiration approaches the oxygen needs for the degradation of the organic matter entering the pond. The incremental production of the top feeders (Grass, Catla and Mirror carps) and bottom feeders (Mrigal carp) represents the potential extra production from a duckweed system (Skillicorn et al., 1993).
Duckweed-fed carp polyculture
The reader should refer to Skillicorn et al. (1993) for the most authoritative discussion of this subject.
In this document I will take the main issues from these authors. The major arguable criticism of Skillicorn et al. work put forward here is that it is too sophisticated for simple application by a small farmer. Resource-poor farmers need considerable economic support to set up fish farming. It becomes more complex where there is an attempt to integrate the farm in order for it to be sustainable. Under these conditions the use of artificial fertiliser as used in the Mirazapur project limits the application by small farmers. Fertilisers are often too expensive to use even for rice crop production, for example, much of the rice grown on small farms in Vietnam depend on recycling of nutrients via pig manure and fertilisers are either not used or are used sparingly. At the present time the financial crisis in Asia is likely to make fertilisers more expensive and it can be anticipated that there will be decreasing grain production in Asia over the next few years. Despite these reservations about their approach Skillicorn et al. (1993) have provided immensely valuable data which is essential for future small-farm systems to develop. It will be particularly important for the establishment of manure fed duckweed aquaculture and systems based on manure/biogas.
The Mirazapur carp stocking strategy and carp growth rates
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are the major users of duckweed but Catla (Catla catla) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) compete aggressively for duckweed. About 50% of the potentially digested nutrients in duckweed are used by the fish and so the faeces from duckweed fed carp are of relatively high in organic materials useable directly or indirectly through microbial action by the bottom feeders and these can be increased to 30% of the total population (see Skillicorn et al. 1993).
In general over 1989-90 the distribution of carp in the Mirazapur venture was:
- 45% top feeders (15% Catla, 20% Grass Carp, 10% Mirror Carp)
- 35% middle feeders (Rohu 15%, Silver Carp 20%)
- 20% bottom feeders (20% Mrigal Carp)
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